Study suggests adults with type 1 diabetes have higher HbA1c levels if they smoke

New research indicates that adults with type 1 diabetes may be negatively affecting their HbA1c levels by smoking, as well as their metabolic outcomes.
In people with type 1 diabetes, the risk of vascular complications may also be increased by smoking, researchers at the Medical University of Innsbruck, in Austria, found.
Data taken from the T1D Exchange Registry in the United States and the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up Registry in Germany and Austria was examined by Sabine E. Hofer and colleagues.
The study comprised of 20,405 adults who had type 1 diabetes for at least one year. The researchers investigated the relationship between cigarette use and metabolic outcomes. If a participant had smoked a minimum of one cigarette per day for the last year, the researchers classed them as a smoker. In addition to the control group of people who had never smoked, an additional former smoker group was examined.
It was discovered that the smoking group had substantially higher HbA1c levels (70 mmol/mol) in comparison to the non-smoking group (62 mmol/mol). After adjustment for age, sex and diabetes duration, these associations still existed. It was also uncovered that the smoker group had higher LDL cholesterol levels as well as higher blood triglyceride levels, in comparison with the non-smoking group.
The researchers said: “Our data clearly show higher HbA1c and additional unfavourable lipid profiles in patients with [type 1 diabetes] who smoke.
“We observed a significantly higher number of former smokers in the [US], implying that interventions to reduce tobacco consumption and smoke-free policies have been more successful in the [US] compared with Europe.”
The study was published in Diabetes Care.